How to reset forgotten root password in Linux?

The root password for the Linux system can be reset by booting it into the Single User mode which is also termed as Emergency mode or more popularly known as Rescue mode.

If the boot loader installed on your Linux system is GRUB, then please follow the below listed steps to reset the root password.

  • Select the line which specifies the kernel to be loaded.
  • Press the ‘e’ key to edit the entry.
  • Choose second line (the line starting with the word kernel).
  • Press the ‘e’ key again to edit kernel entry
  • Append the letter ‘S’ or word ‘single’ to the end of the line.
  • Press the [ENTER] key
  • Press the ‘b’ key to boot the Linux kernel into single user mode

After the booting process completes, mount the ‘/’ and ‘proc’ partitions using the below listed commands.

# mount -t proc proc /proc
# mount -o remount,rw /

Issue the 'passwd' command to change the root password.

Finally, reboot the system employing the below commands.
# sync
# reboot

If the boot loader installed on your Linux system is not GRUB but LILO, then please follow the below mentioned steps to reset the root password.

  • At the Boot: prompt displayed by the LILO boot loader, type linux single and press the [ENTER] key:
  • Allow the system boot and when it displays the # prompt, type passwd to reset the root password.
  • Finally, reboot the system by issuing sync followed by the reboot command.

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All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. sks8.wordpress.com or skumar.co.nr makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis. Any trademarks, if at all displayed on this blog belong to their respective owners.

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How to obtain hostname from IP address in Linux?

Today, I fell in need of identifying the host name (also termed as ‘DNS name‘) based on the IP address for one of my Linux Box. My first try was using 'ping -a' command. But that failed to satisfy my requirement.

Domain names, arranged in a tree, cut into zon...
Image via Wikipedia

If you ever come across the situation where 'ping -a' does not provide you with the host name of the box, then you can try any of the below mentioned methods to satisfy the requirement.

Method 1: Using the 'host' command

One of the simplest way to retrieve host name from IP address is employing the 'host' command provided by GNU/Linux.
Syntax for the host command: $>host <ip-address> <nameserver>
Example:

testhost:~ # host 209.85.231.104
104.231.85.209.in-addr.arpa domain name pointer maa03s01-in-f104.google.com.
testhost:~ #

Method 2: Using the 'nslookup' command

nslookup is a command used to query the Internet Domain Name servers.

Example:
nslookup 209.85.231.104
Server:  72.163.128.140
Address: 72.163.128.140#53


Non-authoritative answer:
104.231.85.209.in-addr.arpa    name = maa03s01-in-f104.google.com.


Authoritative answers can be found from:
231.85.209.in-addr.arpa    nameserver = ns1.google.com.
231.85.209.in-addr.arpa    nameserver = ns3.google.com.
231.85.209.in-addr.arpa    nameserver = ns4.google.com.
231.85.209.in-addr.arpa    nameserver = ns2.google.com.
ns3.google.com    internet address = 216.239.36.10
ns4.google.com    internet address = 216.239.38.10
ns2.google.com    internet address = 216.239.34.10
ns1.google.com    internet address = 216.239.32.10

Method 3: Using the 'dig' command
As per the Linux man pagedig (domain information groper) is a flexible tool for interrogating DNS name servers. It performs DNS lookups and displays the answers that are returned from the name server(s) that were queried.

Disclaimer

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. sks8.wordpress.com or skumar.co.nr makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis. Any trademarks, if at all displayed on this blog belong to their respective owners.

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Install multiple versions of Firefox on Microsoft Windows, Linux or MAC

Have you come across a plug-in or an extension that won’t install on the current version of the Firefox browser but requires an older version?

If your answer to the above question is a big ‘YES’, then this post is for you, else, no worries, you are lucky enough to have all your favourite plugins available for the current version of Firefox running on your machine. Enjoy reading this blog!

Modus Operandi:

  • Download all the required versions of Firefox that you wish to install.
  • For the purpose of this blog, let me consider installing Firefox 3.0.13 and the latest version which is Firefox 3.5.2.
  • Install either of two version. Users are normally inclined to the fact of installing older version first, therefore, let me choose the other way round and consider installing the higher version first and then install the older one.
  • After installing either of the Firefox version, (in my case, I have installed Firefox 3.5.2), execute the below command:
    • In Microsoft Windows: <Firefox installed folder>/firefox.exe -ProfileManager
    • In Linux: <Firefox installed folder>/firefox -ProfileManager
    • In MAC: <Firefox installed folder>/firefox-bin -ProfileManager
  • A dialog box pop’s up as shown in the image below. Click the ‘Create Profile’ button to create a new user profile.
1. Multiple-Firefox-Instance-Create-Profile-Button
Step 1 – Create a new user profile.

  • The ‘Create Profile Wizard’ is displayed.
2. Multiple-Firefox-Instance-Create-Profile-Wizard
Step 2 – Click ‘Next’ on the ‘Create Profile Wizard’ dialog box.

  • Key in some name in the ‘Profile name’ text box. If you prefer to save the user preferences, settings and other user related data in a particular folder other than the default one, then click the ‘Choose Folder’ button and opt for a specific folder of your choice.
3. Multiple-Firefox-Instance-Create-Profile-Wizard-Entries
Step 3 – Choose a profile name and folder to store user related data.

  • Clicking the ‘Finish’ button on the previous dialog box (shown above) leads you to the ‘Choose User Profile’ dialog box (shown below) listing the new profile created just now. Un-check the ‘Don’t ask at startup’ check-box if you prefer to be asked to choose a user profile each time Firefox starts.
4. Multiple-Firefox-Instance-New-Profile-Created
Step 4 – Choose the newly created profile and click ‘Start Firefox’.

  • After you make sure that the current installed version of Mozilla Firefox starts without any issues, go ahead and install the other version of the Firefox.
  • While installing the other version, choose ‘Custom Installation’ option and not ‘Standard Installation’.
  • Opt for a different folder other than the one in which the current installed Firefox is located.
  • On completion of the installation, follow the above steps describing the mechanism involved in creating a separate profile for Mozilla Firefox.
  • To set the profile automatically for a certain version of Mozilla Firefox, please modify the shortcut to something as shown below.
    • <Firefox installed folder>/firefox.exe -ProfileManager <new-profile-name> Or,
    • <Firefox installed folder>/firefox.exe -P <new-profile-name>
  • On a Microsoft Windows machine, please be sure to change the ‘Start in’ field in the shortcut to match the folder path used in the target (however the ‘Start in’ will not need the'-P <new-profile-name>').
  • Please note, if you have a Mozilla Firefox window open while trying to access the ‘Profile Manager’ it will just open up another window of Firefox. You cannot run more than one version of Mozilla Firefox simultaneously. Therefore, to execute the other version of Mozilla Firefox installed on your system, please close all the open Firefox windows and then start up the other version.
  • Finally, if you prefer more information on the ‘Firefox Profile Manager’, please visit the ‘Profile Manager‘ section in the MozillaZine Knowledge Base.
  • Enjoy using multiple versions of Mozilla Firefox on your system!

The below listed video was published by Joey in the ‘ClearTechInfo.com Studio‘ section of the 5 min Life Videopedia website. It portrays the process involved in creating multiple Mozilla Firefox 3 profiles in Microsoft Windows Vista operating system.

Link to the video: http://www.5min.com/Video/How-to-Create-Multiple-Firefox-3-Profiles-61017751

Disclaimer

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. Niether sks8.wordpress.com nor skumar.co.nr makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis. The trademarks, if at all used on this blog belong to their respective owners.

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My most favourite Linux wallpapers – Series 1

I am a die hard fan of Linux (though I am writing this blog using a Microsoft® Windows box). It a great operating system where a user is allowed to customize anything straight down to the code level.

I have been using Linux for the past nine years intermittently. Most of the time, it has been only to satisfy my urge to create software.

All these years, I have had used a lot of wallpapers to decorate my desktop. Both of my Linux as well as Microsoft® Windows desktops. I like a couple of wallpapers that I think would be a good idea to share with the rest of the world.

1. Linux Mint – Water Droplets

Linux Mint - Green Water Droplets

This is my most favourite wallpaper. This decorates my desktop at present.

This wallpaper was created by Zwopper. It licensed under Creative Commons.

2. Linux Mint – Blue – Water Droplets

Linux Mint - Blue Water Droplets

This wallpaper that always revitalizes me!

This wallpaper was created by Zwopper. It licensed under Creative Commons.

3. Linux Mint – Blueness

Linux Mint Blueness

An eye pleasing wallpaper!

This wallpaper was created by Nikola Trifunovic. It licensed under GPL.

4. Linux Mint – Light Green

Linux Mint - Light Green

It looks good on Desktop

This wallpaper was created by Zwopper. It licensed under Creative Commons.

5. Linux Mint – Dark Blue

Linux Mint - Dark Blue

Imparts soothing effect on your thoughts when on desktop

This wallpaper was the winner of the ‘Wallpaper of the Month, August 2008‘ in the Mint Wallpaper contest. It’ licensed under GPL.

6. Linux Mint – Dark Green

Linux Mint - Dark Green

Green is considered to be one of the most pleasing colours!

This is the Linux Mint Daryna Wallpaper.

Disclaimer:

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. sks8.wordpress.com nor skumar.co.nr makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis. The trademarks, if at all used on this blog belong to their respective owners.

Published in: on August 14, 2009 at 12:44 pm  Comments (5)  
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