How to install NFS (Network File System) server in Linux Mint?

The Network File System (NFS) protocol was developed by Sun Microsystems in 19841. NFS builds over Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call, commonly called SUN ONC.

Step 1: Install NFS server and associated applications on the Linux Mint desktop.

Issue the command: #sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server nfs-common portmap

Step 2: Configure the NFS Server.

NFS exports from a server are controlled by the file /etc/exports. Each line begins with the absolute path of a directory to be exported, followed by a space-seperated list of allowed clients.

For example: To export the /var/nfs directory so that it can be accessed by any client, please insert the below line into /etc/export.
/var/nfs * (ro,async,subtree_check)

Note: Allowing any client to access your box can be potentially harmful. Please reconsider your decision before doing so.

To allow access to machines with a particular set of IP addresses, please insert the below line in /etc/export.
/var/nfs 192.168.1.1/24 (ro,async,subtree_check)

Other options that can specified along with the IP address include:

ro:

The directory is shared read only; the client machine will not be able to write it. This is the default.

rw:

The client machine will have read and write access to the directory.

no_root_squash:

If no_root_squash is specified, then root on the client machine will have the same level of access to the files on the system as root on the server. This can have serious security implications. You should not specify this option without a good reason.

no_subtree_check:

If only part of a volume is exported, a routine called subtree checking verifies that a file that is requested from the client is in the appropriate part of the volume. If the entire volume is exported, disabling this check will speed up transfers.

sync

By default, all but the most recent version (version 1.11) of the exportfs command will use async behavior, telling a client machine that a file write is complete – that is, has been written to stable storage – when NFS has finished handing the write over to the filesystem. This behavior may cause data corruption if the server reboots, and the sync option prevents this.

References


1.  “Design and Implementation of the Sun Network Filesystem“. USENIX. 1985.

2. RFC 3530 – NFS Version 4 Protocol Specification.

3. Linux NFS Overview, FAQ and How-To documents.

Disclaimer


All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. sks8.wordpress.com or skumar.co.nr makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis. Any trademarks, if at all displayed on this blog belong to their respective owners.

a user on a client computer to access files over a network in a manner similar to how local storage is accessed
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Synchronise Nokia 5800 with Google (Calendar and Contacts)

Finally, I have successfully synced my Nokia 5800 contacts and calendar with Google calendar and contacts respectively.

Here are the list of steps that I followed.

  • The Mail for Exchange application should be installed in Nokia 5800 in order to sync with Google.
  • On completion of the installation, please navigate to ‘Applications‘ on the Nokia 5800 menu and choose ‘Mail for Exchange‘.
  • On the first run, the application would ask you to set up the ‘Exchange server profile‘.
  • Choose ‘Yes’ and set up the profile settings as follows:
    • Exchange server name: m.google.com
    • Secure connection: Yes
    • Port Number: 443 (should be the default one)
    • Domain: leave blank
    • Username: your-id@gmail.com
    • Password: your password
  • Please disable the Tasks and Mail, otherwise it may not work at all; also please change the settings for Contacts and Calendar so the contacts and events currently on your phone are not wiped out when you first synchronize the device.

Couple of points to remember

  • Google may not be charging you to access Google products from a mobile phone, but depending on your service plan, you may be charged by your mobile provider for text message or data network usage. Check with your provider for more information about fees associated with accessing the Internet from your mobile phone.

Reference

Disclaimer

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. sks8.wordpress.com or skumar.co.nr makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis. Any trademarks, if at all displayed on this blog belong to their respective owners.

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English Grammar – What are ‘Parts of Speech’?

English is a extremely beautiful and flexible language. A word meaning is derived from how it is used in a sentence along with it’s spelling and pronounciation.

Several words are put together to form a sentence which has certain meaning. This sentence can be termed as a speech. Hence, the words in the sentence form the parts of the speech.

The parts of speech are classified into eight types, namely:

  1. Adjectives
  2. Adverbs
  3. Conjunctions
  4. Interjections
  5. Nouns
  6. Prepositions
  7. Pronouns
  8. Verbs

Reference

Disclaimer

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. sks8.wordpress.com or skumar.co.nr makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis. Any trademarks, if at all displayed on this blog belong to their respective owners.

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My quest for knowledge – English Grammar

I have always liked English as a language. I have been studying English since my school days. Now, after all these years, I want to refine my knowledge of English Grammar.

I have finalized to kick-start my quest for knowledge of English Grammar with ‘Parts of Speech‘. To make sure that I do not loose track during the process of learning, I have planned to write a blog post after learning each parts of speech, starting with ‘Adjectives’.

Please wish me all the best in my quest!

Thank you.

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How to find latitude and longitude of a location in Google Maps?

Step 1:

Open the Google Maps website (http://maps.google.com/) and key-in the location details in the search box.

Google Maps - Search Box

Step 2:

Select the location in the search results for which the latitude and longitude are to be identified.

2. Choose desired location within the search results

Step 3:

Zoom-in as much as possible and right click on the exact location for which latitude and longitude are to be identified. Then, please choose the ‘Center map here‘ option displayed in the pop-up menu.

3. Choose the center map here option

Step 4:

On the address bar of your browser, key-in the below javascript code.

javascript:void(prompt('',gApplication.getMap().getCenter()));

This will display the latitude and longitude of the location in question within a dialog box as portrayed in the image below.

4. Javascript code

Step 5:

An alternative method to identify the latitude and longitude is to click on the ‘Linkhyperlink on the right top corner of the Google Map sub-frame and glance at the contents displayed in the text box below the label – ‘Paste link in email or IM‘ (as shown in the image below).

5. Click the 'Link' hyperlink on the right top corner

Disclaimer

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. Niether sks8.wordpress.com nor skumar.co.nr makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis. Any trademarks, if at all displayed on this blog belong to their respective owners.

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How to reset forgotten root password in Linux?

The root password for the Linux system can be reset by booting it into the Single User mode which is also termed as Emergency mode or more popularly known as Rescue mode.

If the boot loader installed on your Linux system is GRUB, then please follow the below listed steps to reset the root password.

  • Select the line which specifies the kernel to be loaded.
  • Press the ‘e’ key to edit the entry.
  • Choose second line (the line starting with the word kernel).
  • Press the ‘e’ key again to edit kernel entry
  • Append the letter ‘S’ or word ‘single’ to the end of the line.
  • Press the [ENTER] key
  • Press the ‘b’ key to boot the Linux kernel into single user mode

After the booting process completes, mount the ‘/’ and ‘proc’ partitions using the below listed commands.

# mount -t proc proc /proc
# mount -o remount,rw /

Issue the 'passwd' command to change the root password.

Finally, reboot the system employing the below commands.
# sync
# reboot

If the boot loader installed on your Linux system is not GRUB but LILO, then please follow the below mentioned steps to reset the root password.

  • At the Boot: prompt displayed by the LILO boot loader, type linux single and press the [ENTER] key:
  • Allow the system boot and when it displays the # prompt, type passwd to reset the root password.
  • Finally, reboot the system by issuing sync followed by the reboot command.

Disclaimer

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. sks8.wordpress.com or skumar.co.nr makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis. Any trademarks, if at all displayed on this blog belong to their respective owners.

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What is the difference between exit() and _exit() system call?

Should I employ exit(int status) or _exit(int status) to exit() from a child process? Does this question haunt you quite often? If so, this post is for you.

The exit() method which is part of the C library routines calls the kernel system call _exit() internally.

The responsibility of the kernel system call _exit() includes asking the kernel to close any open descriptors, free the memory used by the process and perform terminating process clean-up. Whereas the exit() call takes care of flushing the I/O buffers and perform additional clean-up before invoking _exit() internally.

In simpler words, exit() performs clean-up related to user-mode constructs in the library, and calls user-supplied cleanup functions whereas _exit() performs only the kernel level cleanup for the process.

It’s always advisable to use _exit(int status) in a child because employing exit(int status) can lead to stdio buffers being flushed twice, and temporary files being unexpectedly removed.

Finally, exit(int status) is defined in stdio.h and _exit(int status) is defined in unistd.h file.

Disclaimer

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. sks8.wordpress.com or skumar.co.nr makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis. Any trademarks, if at all displayed on this blog belong to their respective owners.

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How to obtain hostname from IP address in Linux?

Today, I fell in need of identifying the host name (also termed as ‘DNS name‘) based on the IP address for one of my Linux Box. My first try was using 'ping -a' command. But that failed to satisfy my requirement.

Domain names, arranged in a tree, cut into zon...
Image via Wikipedia

If you ever come across the situation where 'ping -a' does not provide you with the host name of the box, then you can try any of the below mentioned methods to satisfy the requirement.

Method 1: Using the 'host' command

One of the simplest way to retrieve host name from IP address is employing the 'host' command provided by GNU/Linux.
Syntax for the host command: $>host <ip-address> <nameserver>
Example:

testhost:~ # host 209.85.231.104
104.231.85.209.in-addr.arpa domain name pointer maa03s01-in-f104.google.com.
testhost:~ #

Method 2: Using the 'nslookup' command

nslookup is a command used to query the Internet Domain Name servers.

Example:
nslookup 209.85.231.104
Server:  72.163.128.140
Address: 72.163.128.140#53


Non-authoritative answer:
104.231.85.209.in-addr.arpa    name = maa03s01-in-f104.google.com.


Authoritative answers can be found from:
231.85.209.in-addr.arpa    nameserver = ns1.google.com.
231.85.209.in-addr.arpa    nameserver = ns3.google.com.
231.85.209.in-addr.arpa    nameserver = ns4.google.com.
231.85.209.in-addr.arpa    nameserver = ns2.google.com.
ns3.google.com    internet address = 216.239.36.10
ns4.google.com    internet address = 216.239.38.10
ns2.google.com    internet address = 216.239.34.10
ns1.google.com    internet address = 216.239.32.10

Method 3: Using the 'dig' command
As per the Linux man pagedig (domain information groper) is a flexible tool for interrogating DNS name servers. It performs DNS lookups and displays the answers that are returned from the name server(s) that were queried.

Disclaimer

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. sks8.wordpress.com or skumar.co.nr makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis. Any trademarks, if at all displayed on this blog belong to their respective owners.

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I want to be hired. What traits should I cultivate?

What do employers look for in a candidate?” – This is the preponderant thought that harasses every job seeker. Are they behind technical knowledge or experience? What values and soft skills do they prefer? Do they impart prime importance to the personality and the ability to adapt to the organisation culture?

The candidate should be well aware of what would impress the prospective employer if they are willing to pocket their desired job. Having the knowledge of the critical skills that the employers look for is almost half the battle won.

Some of the most common employer requisites when shortlisting a candidate are listed below.

1. Education and Experience

  • A strong educational background is and will always be a top priority of every employer.
  • Relevant work experience plays a very significant role in deciding the candidates eligibility for a job in consideration.
  • The employers always prefer candidates who have specific occupational expertise, well qualified and experienced so that they can hit the ground running without any need for extensive training or direction.
  • In case of fresh graduates, employers may give weightage to credentials, impressive grades, scholarships, awards and recognitions, and sometimes the type of school/college attended.

2. Computer Literacy

3. Communication skills

  • Verbal and written communication skills including listening skills.

4. Teamwork

  • It’s all about collaboration, participation, working harmoniously, avoiding conflicts, interacting and spending time with other team members.

5. Leadership

  • Helping, encouraging, coaching and inspiring coworkers is classified under ‘Leadership’.

6. Initiative

  • The candidate should be  a self-starter and get the work done without constantly being told what needs to be done and reminded of the same.

7. Flexibility

  • The candidate should be able to adapt to changing conditions and work assignments.

8. Result-oriented

  • The candidate should be able to plan, organise and implement anything from tasks and projects to deadlines. Should be good at prioritising along with efficient time management.

9. Analysis

  • Should be able to analyse situations, seek information from appropriate sources and then resourcefully solve the problems. The decision making skill plays a major role in the analysis ability of the candidate.

10. Work ethics

  • The candidate should respect personal values like honesty, integrity, punctuality, reliability, commitment and dedication.

Note

The title and order of the bullet points above were borrowed from an article titled – ‘Top traits to cultivate if you want to be hired’ published in the ‘Career Clues’ column of the ‘The Hindu Newspaper’, written by ‘Payal Chanania’.

Disclaimer

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. Neither sks8.wordpress.com nor skumar.co.nr makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis. The logos, images and trademarks used on this blog belong to their respective owners.

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What is Gmail offline functionality and how to enable it?

Image representing Gmail as depicted in CrunchBase
Image via CrunchBase

The so called ‘Gmail Offline Functionality‘ will allow users to use the Gmail interface when disconnected from the Internet. It means that, users will be able to load Gmail even though they are not connected to the Internet and will have the ability to read, star, archive and organize emails.

Users will also be able to compose new emails. These mails will be stored in the ‘Outbox‘ and sent whenever the user goes online.

How is this achieved?

The offline functionality for web-based applications is achieved by employing Google Gears.

Image representing Google Gears as depicted in...

Image via CrunchBase

Google Gears is a browser plug-in that provides offline access to the web based applications like Gmail. Gears is also employed for offline access to many other web applications from Google, such as the Google Reader RSS manager, the Google Docs word processor and from other providers like Zoho, which uses it for offline access to its e-mail and word processing browser-based application.

Mozilla Firefox
Image via Wikipedia

The Google Gears browser plug-in for Mozilla Firefox v3.5 can be located at: https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/search?q=Google+Gears&cat=all.

When a user is connected to the Internet, Gmail uses Gears browser plug-in to download a local cache of the mail. The cache is then synchronized with Gmail’s servers as long as the internet connection is alive.

How to enable ‘Offline’ functionality for Gmail?

  • Open Gmail and sign-in to your account.
  • Click the ‘Settings’ hyperlink on the top right corner of the Gmail interface.
  • Select the ‘Labs’ tab.
  • Click ‘Enable’ next to ‘Offline Gmail’ feature.
  • Save your changes.
  • On the top right corner of the Gmail interface, next to the user-name, a new link would be visible, named ‘Offline’.
  • Click the ‘Offline’ link to start the synchronization process.

Note

For the synchronization to be successful, the Google Gears browser plug-in should be pre-installed.

In summary

The Google Gears implementation will allow people to work within the Gmail interface without the need for a separate desktop application. When the user is offline, email messages will be stored in the Gears browser queue, and will be synchronized automatically when user connect to the Internet.

Disclaimer

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. Neither sks8.wordpress.com nor skumar.co.nr makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis. The logos, images and trademarks used on this blog belong to their respective owners.

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